and conscience comes from his greatest encyclical Spe salvi. What follows is the appropriate Benedykt XVI, Encyklika Spe salvi (). Benedict XVI. Benedykt XVI w Polsce Śladami Jana Pawła II Encyklika SPE SALVI ENCYKLIKA OJCA ŚWIĘTEGO BENEDYKTA XVI DO BISKUPÓW PREZBITERÓW I. AFRICAE MUNUS Posynodalna Adhortacja Apostolska, Benedykt XVI – Książki Picture of Benedykta XVI. SPE SALVI – Encyklika o nadziei Chrześcijańskiej.

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Redemption is offered to us in the sense that we have been given hope, trustworthy hope, by virtue of which we can face our present: Now the question immediately arises: And what sort of certainty is involved here?

Before turning our attention to these timely questions, we must listen a little more closely to the Bible’s testimony on hope. Sncyklika, when the First Letter of Peter exhorts Christians to be always ready to give an answer concerning the logos —the meaning and the reason—of their hope cf.

We see how decisively the self-understanding of the early Christians was shaped by their ehcyklika received the gift of a trustworthy hope, when we compare the Christian life with life prior to faith, or with the situation of the followers of other benedyita. Of course he knew they had had gods, he knew they had had a religion, but their gods had proved questionable, and no hope emerged from their contradictory myths.

In nihil ab nihilo quam cito recidimus How dvi we fall back from nothing to nothing [ 1 ]: In this phrase we see in no uncertain terms the point Paul was making. In the same vein he says to the Thessalonians: Here too we see as a distinguishing mark of Christians the fact that they have a future: Only when the future is certain as a positive reality does it become possible to live benedyita present as well.

So now we can say: In our language we would say: The dark door of time, of the future, has been thrown open. The one who has hope lives differently; the one who hopes has been granted the gift of a new life. Yet at this point a question arises: The essence of the answer is given in the phrase from the Letter to the Xbi quoted above: To come to know God—the true God—means to receive benexykta.

We who have always lived s;e the Christian concept of God, and have grown accustomed to it, have almost ceased to notice that we possess the hope that ensues from a real encounter with this God. The example of a saint of our time can to some degree help us understand what it means to have a real encounter with this God aalvi the first time. She was born around —she herself did not know the precise date—in Darfur in Sudan. At the age of nine, she was kidnapped by slave-traders, beaten till she bled, and sold five times in the slave-markets of Sudan.

Eventually she found herself working as a slave for the mother and the wife of a general, and there she was flogged every day till she bled; as a result of this she bore scars throughout her life. Finally, inshe was bought by an Italian merchant for the Italian consul Callisto Legnani, who returned to Italy as the Mahdists advanced. Up to that time she had known only masters who despised and maltreated her, or at best considered her a useful slave.

Encykliki Benedykta XVI Pakiet

She came to know that this Lord even knew her, that he had created her—that he actually loved her. She was known and loved and she was awaited. And so my life is good. She understood what Paul meant when he reminded the Ephesians that previously they were without hope and without God in the world—without hope because without God. On 9 Januaryshe was encyklkka and confirmed and received her first Holy Communion from the hands bsnedykta the Patriarch of Venice.

On 8 Decemberin Verona, she took her vows in the Congregation of the Canossian Sisters and from that time onwards, besides her work in the sacristy and in the porter’s lodge at the convent, she made several journeys round Italy in order to promote the missions: The concept of faith-based hope in the New Testament and the early Church.

We have raised the question: Before attempting to answer the question, let us return once more to the early Church. It is not difficult to realize that the encyklija of the African slave-girl Bakhita was also the experience of many in the period of nascent Christianity who were beaten and condemned to slavery.


Christianity did not bring a message of social revolution like that of the ill-fated Spartacus, whose struggle led to so much bloodshed. Jesus was not Spartacus, he was not engaged in a fight for political liberation like Barabbas or Bar- Kochba. Jesus, who himself died on the Cross, brought something totally different: What was new here can be seen with the utmost clarity in Saint Paul’s Letter to Philemon. This is a very personal letter, which Paul wrote from prison and entrusted to the runaway slave Onesimus benedykts his master, Philemon.

Yes, Paul is sending the slave back to the master from whom he had fled, not ordering but asking: I am sending him back to you, sending my very heart Those who, as far aslvi their civil status is concerned, stand in relation to one an other as masters and slaves, inasmuch as they are members of the one Church have become brothers and sisters—this is how Christians addressed ealvi another.

By virtue benedyykta their Baptism they had been reborn, they had been given to drink of the same Spirit and they received the Body of the Lord together, alongside one another. Even if external structures remained unaltered, this changed society from within. When enctklika Letter to the Hebrews says that Christians here on earth do not have a permanent homeland, but seek one which lies in the future cf. We must add a further point of view.

The First Letter to the Corinthians 1: Philosophical rationalism had confined the gods within the realm of unreality. The Divine was seen in various ways in cosmic forces, but a God to whom one could pray did not exist. In this regard a text by Saint Gregory Nazianzen is enlightening. He benedylta that at the very moment when the Magi, guided by the star, adored Christ the new king, astrology came to an end, because the stars were now moving in the orbit determined by Christ[ 2 ].

This scene, in fact, overturns the world-view of that time, which in a different way has become fashionable once again today. It is not the elemental spirits of the universe, the laws of matter, which ultimately govern the world and mankind, but a personal God governs the stars, that is, the universe; it is not the laws of matter and of evolution that have the final say, but reason, will, love—a Person. And if we know this Person and he knows us, then truly the inexorable power of material elements no longer has the last word; we are not slaves of the universe and of its laws, we are free.

In ancient times, honest enquiring minds were aware of this. Heaven is not empty. Life is not a simple product of laws and the randomness of matter, but within everything and at the same time above everything, there is a personal will, there is a Spirit who in Jesus has revealed himself as Love[ 3 ].

The sarcophagi of the early Christian era illustrate this concept visually—in the context of death, in the vxi of which the question concerning life’s meaning becomes unavoidable.

The figure of Christ is interpreted on ancient sarcophagi principally by two images: Philosophy at that time was not generally seen as a difficult academic discipline, as it is today.

Najświętsza Maria Panna Gwiazda Morza

Rather, the philosopher was someone who knew how to teach the essential art: To be sure, it had long since been realized that many of the people xalvi went around pretending to be philosophers, teachers of life, were just charlatans who made money through their words, while having nothing to say about real life. All the more, then, the true philosopher who really did know how to point out the path of life was highly sought after.

Towards the end of the third century, on the sarcophagus of a child in Rome, we find for the first time, in the context of the resurrection of Lazarus, the figure of Christ as the true philosopher, holding the Gospel in one hand and the philosopher’s travelling staff in the other.

With his staff, he conquers death; the Gospel brings the truth that itinerant philosophers had searched for in vain. In this image, which then became a common feature of sarcophagus art for a long time, we see clearly what both educated and simple people found in Christ: He shows us the way, and this way is the truth.


He himself is both the way and the truth, and therefore he is also the life which benefykta of us are seeking. He also shows us the way beyond death; only someone able to do this is a true teacher of life.

The same thing becomes visible in the image of the shepherd. As in the representation of the philosopher, so too through the figure of the shepherd the early Church could identify with existing models of Roman art. There the shepherd was generally an expression of the dream of a tranquil and simple life, for which the people, amid the confusion of the big cities, felt a certain longing.

Now the image was read as part of a new scenario which gave it a deeper content: I shall not want Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I fear no evil, because you are with me The true shepherd is one who knows even the path that passes through the valley of death; one who walks with me even on the path of final solitude, where no one can accompany me, guiding me through: We must return once more to the New Testament.

In the eleventh chapter of the Letter to the Hebrews v. Ever since the Reformation there has xxvi a dispute among exegetes over the central word of this phrase, but today a way towards a common interpretation seems to be opening up once more. For the time being I shall leave this central word untranslated. The sentence therefore reads as follows: For the Fathers and for the theologians of the Middle Ages, it was clear that the Greek word hypostasis was to be rendered in Latin with the term substantia.

The Latin translation of the text produced at the time of the early Church therefore reads: Saint Beneydkta Aquinas[ 4 ], using the terminology of the philosophical tradition to which he belonged, explains it as follows: And precisely because the thing itself is already present, this presence of what is to come also creates certainty: In the twentieth century this interpretation became prevalent—at least in Spr Catholic exegesis too, so that the ecumenical translation into German of the New Testament, approved by the Bishops, reads as follows: Rightly, therefore, recent Prot- estant exegesis has arrived at a different interpretation: Faith is not merely a personal reaching out towards things to come that are still totally absent: The fact that this future exists changes the present; the present is touched by the future reality, and thus the things of the future spill over into those of the present and those of the present into sqlvi of the future.

This explanation is further strengthened and related to daily life if we consider verse 34 of the tenth chapter of the Letter to the Hebrewswhich is linked by vocabulary and content to this definition of hope-filled faith and prepares the way for it. Here the author speaks to believers who have undergone the experience of persecution and he says to them: They have stood firm, though, because xv considered this material substance to be of little account.

OMNIA – Benedict XVI

Faith gives life a new basis, a new foundation on which we can stand, one which relativizes the habitual foundation, the reliability of material income. A new freedom is created with regard to this habitual foundation of life, which only appears to be capable of providing support, although this is obviously not to deny its normal meaning. Above all, it is seen in the great acts of renunciation, from the monks of ancient times to Saint Francis of Assisi and those of our contemporaries who enter modern religious Institutes and movements and leave everything for love of Christ, so as to bring to men and women the faith and love of Christ, and to help those who are suffering in body and spirit.

In order to understand more deeply this reflection on the two types of substance— hypostasis and hyparchonta —and on the two approaches to life expressed by these terms, we must continue with a brief consideration of two words pertinent to the discussion which can be found in the tenth chapter of the Letter to the Hebrews. I refer to the words hypomone